Schedule

BSATSMC 2018

Conference Schedule

2018 Big Sky Athletic Training Sports Medicine Conference

Sunday, February 4th, 2018 Concurrent Sessions, Madison Room:

3:00 pm       Opening Remarks, Jeffrey S Monroe, Executive Director

3:05 pm      “Pediatric Injuries: How Kids are Different” Karen Bovid MD, Pediatric Orthopedics, Homer Stryker School of Medicine, Western Michigan University

Objectives: Upon completion of this presentation, the attendees will be able to:

  1. Restate the anatomy of the knee in a skeletally immature patient including the anterior cruciate ligament and its relationship to the physes
  2. Construct the evaluation of maturity and remaining growth in an adolescent athlete
  3. Identify surgical techniques for reconstruction of the ACL in patients appropriate for varying stages of maturity

3:30 pm       “The Death of Football” Doug McKeag MD, Professor, Family and Sports Medicine, Oregon Health Sciences University; One America Professor Emeritus, Indiana University

Objectives:  After listening to this lecture, the participant will be able to:

  1. Paraphrase the reasons why football, as a sport, is in a downward spiral of interest in the USA
  2. Generalize what will be necessary to strengthen interest in the future

4:00 pm       “A Vision of the National Athletic Trainers Association” Tory Lindley MS AT, Head Athletic Trainer, Northwestern University, President Elect of the National Athletic Trainer’s Association

Objectives, at the conclusion of this presentation, the attendee will be able to:

  1. Summarize the expectations for the future of AT Professional Education
  2. Prepare the formal delivery of athletic training Transition to Practice
  3. Rewrite the new Post-Professional Educational pathways in AT
  4. Express the future of AT Maintenance of Competence

4:30 pm       Super Bowl Party, Hosted by DJO Orthopedics, Jefferson Room, Families and Friends Invited

Gallatin Room:

3:00 pm       “Hip Pain in Athletes:  Common Causes, Evaluation, and Management” Chris Nelson MD, Des Moine Orthopaedics

Objectives: At the completion of this talk the attendee will be able to:

  1. The participant will be able to identify conditions associated with increased risk of hip pathology or labral tears.
  2. The participant will be able to identify key elements of the history and physical exam that are consistent with hip labral tears.

3:30 pm       Case Studies: “Lateral Knee Dislocation in a College Football: Mechanism and Management” Brian Coble, Head Athletic Trainer, Carroll College, MT.

Objectives: At the conclusion of this talk, the attendees will be able to:

  1. Recognize the Anatomy of knee joint ,
  2. Explain the History of Dislocations in College Football
  3. Describe the Mechanism of Injury and the Classification of Knee Dislocation

“Rehabilitation of a Knee Dislocation with Neurovascular Compromise” Phil Johnson AT, Football Athletic Trainer, University of Michigan

Objectives, upon completion of this presentation, the attendees will be able to:

  1. Express the multidisciplinary approach to dealing with a complicated injury.
  2. Recognize insight into the rehabilitation management of complex knee injury

4:00 pm  “Management of SLAP Lesions in Throwers”  David M Lintner MD,  Jeremiah Randall AT PT, Head Team Physician and Head Athletic Trainer of the Houston Astros Baseball Organization.

Objectives: Upon completion of this presentation, the attendee will be able to:

  1. Describe the mechanism of injury to SLAP Injuries.
  2. Identify the common symptoms of SLAP Lesions.

4:15 PM    “Throwers Elbow – Apophyseal Stress Fracture” Jeremiah Randall PT AT, Head Athletic Trainer, Houston Astros Baseball Organization

Objectives, at the end of this presentation, the attendees will be able to:

  1. Identity the potential treatment options for stress fractures in professional baseball players
  2. Describe the typical rehab timeline for non-surgical management of the elbow stress fractures in a baseball pitcher

4:30 pm       Super Bowl Party, Hosted by DJO Orthopedics, Jefferson Room, Families and Fiends Invited

Monday, February 5th, 2018 AM Sessions

7:00 am       Opening remarks: Jeffrey S Monroe, Executive Director

7:05 am       “Hydro Therapy in the Rehabilitation of Upper Extremity Injuries” Randy Cohen PT AT, Head Athletic Trainer University of Arizona

7:30 am       “Objective Measures Related to TBI with a Head & Intraocular Trauma Test” Jeff Mortensen, Rebion

Objectives: Upon the conclusion of this presentation, the attendees will be able to:

  1. Describe measures related to TBI act as gateway in/out of care
  2. Summarize the importance of identifying the severity of TBI

8:00 am       “Title Optimization of Athletic Performance Recovery and Longevity” Jeffrey Gladden MD, Interventional Cardiologist,

Objectives, after completion of this presentation, the attendees will be able to:

  1. Paraphrase how to overcome age related decline in performance
  2. Summarize balancing exercise, oxidative stress and recovery in conjunction with a comprehensive performance and age management practice to optimize longevity

8:30 am       Exhibit Hall Break

8:45 am     “Advancements in Validated Mobile Device Technology”  Frank Wolfe, CEO, Sway Medical

Objectives: At the conclusion of this presentation the attendee will be able to:

  1. Recognize the importance of objective testing verses subjective testing in your concussion evaluation
  2.  Generalize how the clinician can expand their concussion management referral base through mobile medical technology from professional through organized youth sports

9:10 am      “Drug Testing: Prevalence, Trends and Considerations” Melinda Shelby, Ph.D. – Senior Scientist, Sports Testing Services, Aegis Labs

Objectives: At the conclusion of this presentation, the attendees will be able to:

  1. Recite current prevalence and trends in drug testing
  2. Define important considerations for drug testing policies

9:35 am        “The Risk of NSAID’s in Your Athlete: The  Good Bad and the Ugly” Kirt Kimball MD, Team Physician, Brigham Young University

Objectives, upon completion of this presentation, the attendee will be able to:

  1. Recite to athletes regarding the use of NSAID’s (understand how they work and what their short and long term side effects might be)
  2. Develop reasonable alternatives to the use of NSAID’s as well as Corticosteroids

10:00   “Concussion: Improving Brain Resilience & Concussion Recovery” Kirt Kimball MD, Team Physician, Brigham Young University

Objectives, upon completion of this presentations, the attendees will be able to:

  1. Obtain an understanding of the current science behind the biology of Brain injury
  2. Recite to athletes the biology behind improving brain resilience to injury and post injury recovery.

10:30-10:45 am  “Accelerated in-season management for an Offensive Lineman with a Jones Fracture” Collin Francis AT, Assistant Football Athletic Trainer, University of Indiana

Objectives: At the conclusion of this presentation, the attendee will be able to:

  1. Examine Modality usage and bracing aspects for accelerated return to play
  2. Explore Nutritional deficiencies in this athlete and how they were addressed

 

Workshop Presentation, Monday, February 5th, 2018,

1:00 – 3:00 pm  “Ethical Dilemmas in Sports Medicine: Contemporary Case

Discussion and Analysis”

This presentation strives to present contemporary cases in Sports Medicine, including but not limited to concussion management, return to play, performance enhancing substances, standard of care, legal vs. ethical, and administrative practices.  After a brief introduction and presentation of several fundamental ethical resolution strategies  (Kidder’s Moral Courage Model; Potter’s Triangle; Health Care Principles), the cases will be presented for discussion and analysis.  Participants will be broken into smaller discussion groups to initially analyze the cases and then will debrief with the larger group to fully appreciate the complexities of each case.  The facilitator will wrap-up each discussion with key points for consideration.  The workshop will conclude with summary comments to guide ethical practice in sports medicine.

Objectives, At the conclusion of this workshop, participants will be able to:

  1. Understand the breadth of ethical issues facing sports medicine professionals;
  2.  Engage in ethical deliberation using standard strategies to promote critical thinking;
  3.  Challenge standard responses to ethical situations following introduction of ethical decision-making models;
  4.  Understand the balance between law and ethics in the practice of Sports Medicine; and
  5.  Appreciate and respect perspectives of other participants to expand ethical reasoning.

Monday, February 5th, 2018, PM Sessions

3:00 pm       “Data-driven Approach to Managing Football Athletes,” Devin Hamrick, Riddell

Objectives: At the completion of this presentation, the Participants will:

  1. Recite the emerging role of Head Impact Exposure data in managing athletes throughout the season.
  2. Analyze the challenge of bridging the gap between Athletic Training Staff and Coaching Staff as it relates to past and future on-field activity.
  3. Explore data-driven understanding of team and individual athlete playing habits

3:30 pm       “Concussion Spotters Roles, Thoughts Going Forward” Rod Walters PhD AT

Objectives: At the conclusion of this talk, the attendees will be able to:

  1. Analyze the incorporation of video review in game administration and concussion management.
  2. Critique concussion monitoring in various leagues.
  3. Consider further improvements to administration of concussion management.

4:00 pm       Exhibit Hall Break

4:15 pm    “The Use of Pressure Wave/Shockwave Technology in Injury Management”  Carmine DeSalla, Medical Wave

4:40 pm       “Using Light to Enhance Athletic Performance in Post and Pre-Season” John Bruno AT, Multi-Radiance

Objectives, at the conclusion of this presentation, the attendee will be able to:

  1. Explore the role of Light Enhanced Athletic Performance for off-season injury recovery and preparation and use during pre-season activities.
  2. State the mechanisms of action behind laser powered athletic performance and the role of NO, ATP and O2

5:10 pm       “Update on National Environmental Policies Effecting Athletic Events” Katie Walsh Flanagan EdD, LAT, ATC, East Carolina University

Objectives:  At the conclusion of the presentation, the attendee will be able to:

  1. Restate the effects on athletic participation for environmental conditions related wind speed and air quality
  2. Distinguish between NATA, NCAA (collegiate), NFSHSA (high schools) safety polices on environmental factors
  3. Create a best practice environmental safety plan for his/her own place of work

5:30-6:00     “Visual Orientation and Concussion Subtypes” Jamshid Ghajar MD, PhD, FACS,  Director of the Stanford Concussion and Brain Performance Center

Objectives: At the conclusion of this presentation the attendees will be able to:

  1. Consider evidence that concussion subtypes are prevalent and are useful for targeted therapies
  2. Demonstrate that visual disorientation is the central impairment in concussion

6:00 pm     Sponsor’s Beer and Wine Reception in Jefferson Room, Attendees encouraged to attend

 

Tuesday, February 6th, 2018, AM Sessions, Concussion Day

 7:00 am          “The Radical Middle: Understanding the Biology of Risks and Benefits of Sport Participation” Chris Giza, MD, UCLA

Objectives: At the end of the presentation, the attendee shall be able to:

  1. Analyze the preclinical and clinical evidence regarding risks of repetitive mTBI associated with sports
  2. Distinguish in context preclinical and clinical data relating the benefits for physical activity in brain health

7:30 am          “Current Data and Understanding of Sex and Gender as Modifiers of Concussion and Brain Health” Meeryo Choe, MD, UCLA

Objectives: Upon completion of this presentation the attendee shall be able to:

  1. State whether sex and gender are determinants of concussion incidence
  2. Distingquish whether there are differences in outcome after concussion attributable to sex and/or gender

8:00 am          “Cognitive rest and concussion, an update on returning youth patients to the classroom” Kelly Trainor, NP, The Sports Neurology Clinic

Objectives: Upon completion of this presentation, the attendees will be able to:

  1. Acknowledge updated literature regarding cognitive rest post concussion
  2. Identify steps of return to learn process

8:30 am          “Acute Rest and Active Recovery in Sport Concussion” Matthew McCarthy, MD, the Sports Neurology Clinic

Objectives, at the conclusion of the presentation the attendee should be able to:

  1. Review the current evidence for acute rest and early exercise after sports related concussion
  2. Update current best practices for concussion management and return to play process

9:00 am          Exhibit Break

9:20 am          “Common Modifying Factors for Baseline VOMS Performance” – Ryan Moran, PhD, University of Alabama

Objectives, at the conclusion of the presentation the attendee will be able to:

  1. Review the current evidence for implementation of the Vestibular/Ocular Motor Screening (VOMS) tool
  2. Discuss findings regarding modifying factors of sex, history of concussion, ADHD/LD, and migraine at baseline in youth athletes

9:40 am          “Anxiety as Symptom, Diagnosis, and Predictor of Outcomes in Sport Concussion” Anthony Savino, MD, The Sports Neurology Clinic

Objectives, upon completion of this presentation, the attendees will be able to:

  1. Review evidence for anxiety as predictor of outcome following sports related concussion.
  2. Discuss appropriate evaluation and management of anxiety in the athlete.

10:00-10:30 am      “Motion Sensitivity and Concussion” RJ Elbin PhD, University of Arkansas

Objectives; at the completion of this presentation, the attendee will be able to:

  1. Describe the relationship between motion sensitivity and baseline concussion testing performance
  2. Draw conclusions on the role that motion sensitivity has on post-concussion outcomes

Tuesday, February 6th, 2018, PM Sessions, Concussion Day

3:00 pm          “Active Treatment Approaches to Sport Concussion” Mickey Collins PhD, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center

Objectives, at the conclusion of the presentation, the attendee should be able to:

  1. Analyze evidence for quantifying concussion clinical profiles.
  2. Apply clinical criteria for concussion profiles to case examples

3:45 pm       “Emerging Evidence in Sport-related Concussion: Risk Factors, Recovery, and

Activity” Anthony Kontos PhD, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center

Objectives, at the conclusion of the presentation, the attendee should be able to:

  1. Analyze new findings regarding the role of risk factors including migraine history, motion sensitivity; and vestibular and oculomotor outcomes on clinical profiles and recovery following sport-related concussion
  2. Discuss emerging findings regarding activity and sleep following concussion.

4:15 pm           Exhibit Hall Break

4:30 pm          “The Use of Non-Computerized Neurocognitive Screening Tools for Sport Concussion” Talin Babikian, PhD, UCLA

Objectives: Upon completion of this presentation, the attendee will be able to:

Identify the role of neurocognitive screening in evaluations of sports related concussions and recognize the utility of various tools in clinical contexts

5:00 pm          “Effects of Subconcussive Impacts in Youth Contact Sports” Sean Rose MD, Nationwide Children’s Hospital, The Ohio State University

Objectives, at the conclusion of this presentation, the attendee will be able to:

  1. Identify some basic structural and functional differences between the developing brain and adult brain.
  2. Review the current prospective evidence for and against functional neurocognitive deficits associated with youth contact sports.

5:30 pm​          “Central Nervous System Models for Enhancing Performance” Tad Seifert, MD, Norton Healthcare

Objectives: At the end of this activity, participants should be able to:

  1. Demonstrate an understanding of pharmacological CNS enhancers being used in practice and competition by elite level athletes.
  2. State the potential dangers involving their use and misuse of CNS-specific performance enhancing drugs in contact sports.

6:00-6:30 pm        Poster Presentations Reviewed: Dr. Giza, Moderator, Concussion Poster Presentation Authors to assemble near podium for defense of their poster as it is displayed on the screen.

 

Wednesday, February 7th, 2018, AM Session, Ortho Day

7:00 am   “Pain Medication and Injections, What is Effective for Game Day?” Geoffrey Baer MD, Team Physician, University of Wisconsin

Objectives: At the conclusion of this presentation the attendees will be able to:

  1. Describe the options for pain management for injuries for practice and game play as well as controversies associated with their use.
  2. Recognize the indications and common areas that are amenable and safe for anesthetic injection to allow play as well as potential complications.

7:20 am    “Hand Injuries – Game Day and Practice of Bracing and Casting Hand Injuries” Jon Tueting MD, Team Physician, University of Wisconsin;  Brian Lund AT, Head Football Athletic Trainer, University of Wisconsin

Objectives: At the conclusion of this presentation, the attendees will be able to:

  1. Recognize how to evaluate common game day hand injuries in collegiate football players.
  2. Discover treatment strategies that will allow elite athletes to play soon after their injury.

8:00 am   “Head Injuries – Concussion or Not- Game Day Decisions” David Bernhardt MD, Team Physician, University of Wisconsin

Objectives: At the conclusion of this presentation the attendees will be able to:

  1.   Describe the nuances in making playability decisions on the field
  2.   Recognize that without baseline data for the majority of objective based tests, making a decision based on the athlete’s performance in questionable situations is often going to be based on the practitioner’s clinical judgement

8:20 am   “Shoulder Injuries in the Athlete – Glenohumeral Instability” Lisa Sienkiewicz MD, Team Physician, University of Wisconsin

Objectives: At the conclusion of this presentation the attendees will be able to:

1) Identify the critical anatomy involved in glenohumeral instability

2) Classify indications for non-operative vs surgical management of anterior, posterior and multidirectional glenohumeral instability

3) Develop a treatment algorithm to address the associated pathology

8:40 am   “Injuries from the Elbow to the Finger Tips of Elite Athletes-Treatment Options ” Jon Tueting, Team Physician, University of Wisconsin

Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, the attendee will be able to:

  1. Recognize the key features of common upper extremity injuries in elite athletes.
  2. Discover how these injuries can be treated to allow safe and successful return to sport.

9:00 am   “Bracing for Return to Play – Upper and Lower Extremities” Brian Lund AT, Head Football Athletic Trainer, University of Wisconsin

Objectives: At the completion of this presentation, the attendees will be able to:

  1. Identify and describe various supportive taping and bracing options to safely return a student-athletic to play with a lower extremity injury.
  2. Compare and contrast various shoulder braces and there use in returning student-athletes to play.

9:20 am   “Sport Performance Measures” Drew Watson MD, Team Physician, University of Wisconsin

  1. Recognize the interactive nature of injury risk factors and the limitations of traditional injury prediction models.
  2. Recite how machine learning models can advance injury prediction and intervention in real time.

9:20-10:00 am  Panel Discussion: “Ethical Dilemma’s in Sports Medicine- What Should Coaches Know?”  Moderated by David Bernhardt MD, University of Wisconsin; Panel Members: Morning Speakers

Audience members (learners) will gain knowledge regarding whether to share medical information with coaching staff or others.

In a shared decision making model, explaining to the athlete all of the risks and benefits for coaches to have knowledge of their medical information before the athlete decides on sharing medical information is imperative to maintaining a healthy physician-athletic trainer-athlete (patient) relationship, respecting the privacy of the athlete and allowing the athlete the decision of what and how much information will be shared.

Wednesday, February 7th, PM Session, Ortho Day

3:00 pm  “Operative and Non-operative Treatment of Rotator Cuff Tears-The MOON Experience” Grant Jones MD, The Ohio State University

Objectives: At the conclusion of this presentation the attendees will be able to:

  1. Describe the non-operative treatment of rotator cuff tears and its effectiveness.
  2. List the indications for operative treatment of rotator cuff tears.

3:20 pm   “Are we Rehabbing a Shoulder or an Athlete; Special Rehabilitation Techniques for the Rotator Cuff” Kirk Schulz PT, University of Wisconsin

Objectives: At the completion of this presentation, the attendees will be able to:

  1. Describe the concept of regional interdependence and its application as an examination model for the rotational athlete with shoulder pain
  2. Recognize how understanding the biomechanics of the sport facilitates the rehabilitation of the athlete
  3. Recall clinical pearls for treating a rotational athlete with shoulder pain

3:40 pm   “Femoral Acetabular Impingement and Labral Tears in the Athlete” Brian Walczak MD, Team Physician, University of Wisconsin

Objectives:  At the conclusion of this presentation, the attendee will be able to:

  1. Describe Intra-articular pathology seen in the setting of FAI
  2. Describe conditions that can be associated with FAI
  3. Characterize extra-articular syndromes
  4. Summarize current treatments

4:00 pm   “Patella Instability in Athletes – What’s changed in the past 15 years”  David Diduch MD, Head Orthopaedic Team Physician, University of Virginia

Objectives, at the conclusion of the presentation, the attendee should be able to:

  1. Show the critical importance of the Medial Patella Femoral Ligament and how to reconstruct it to restore anatomy.
  2. Originate the various anatomical risk factors for patella instability

4:20 pm   “Current Treatment Options and Functional Return for the Elite Athlete with Anterior Cruciate Injuries” Kristyn Darmafall MD, The Ohio State University

Objectives: At the conclusion of this presentation, the attendees will be able to:

  1. Paraphrase if there is a role for non-operative management of ACL injuries with surgical reconstruction remaining standard of care for athletes returning to Level I(cutting, pivoting) sports
  2. Give examples of no single return to sport criteria has been agreed upon amongst providers and a combination of functional performance testing and psychological readiness more than a time based return may be appropriate

4:40 pm   “Anterior Cruciate Ligament Progressive Testing: Why we do what we do” Kirk Schulz PT, University of Wisconsin

Objectives: At the conclusion of this presentation the attendees will be able to:

  1. Describe an Overview of ACL Injury
  2. Restate the UW Health ACL Progressive Testing Protocol
  3. Interpret Literature Trends of Deficits post ACLR
  4. Develop Rehab Strategies

5:00 pm   “Articular Cartilage Reconstruction in Athletes” Geoffrey Baer MD, University of Wisconsin

Objectives: At the conclusion of this presentation, the attendees will be able to:

  1. Recite the indications for cartilage surgery in the athletic population.
  2. Recite what reconstructive techniques exist and advantages and disadvantages of each.

5:30 – 6:00 pm    “What Does the Future Hold for Cartilage Injuries?” Lisa Goodavish PA, University of Wisconsin

Objectives: At the conclusion of this presentation, the attendee will be able to:

  1. Be aware of the prevalence of articular cartilage injury in athletes
  2. ​​Be familiar with the surgical options for articular cartilage injury in athletes

Thursday, February 8th, 2018

7:00 am     “The Opioid Epidemic”, Tom Lane AT, Lima, Ohio

Objectives, at the conclusion of the presentation, the attendees should be able to:

  1. Review available evidence regarding how the opiate epidemic started
  2. Discuss behavioral and physical characteristics of opiate abuse and share state by state

7:30 am       “Men’s Rugby-7s: A Growing Collegiate Collision Sport and the United States Experience” Richard Ma MD, University of Missouri

Objectives: After the presentation of this material, the attendees will be able to:

  1. Review the exponential growth of Rugby-7s in the U.S. and the format of the game
  2. Understand the injury epidemiology of U.S. amateur collegiate Rugby-7s within the context of other U.S. sports and the international landscape
  3. Recognize the challenges of providing medical care in the U.S. collegiate Rugby-7s athletic population

8:00 am       “Is My Lacrosse Helmet Helping? Connecting Helmet Performance with Head Impact Characteristics” Tom Bowman PhD ATC, Lynchburg College, Virginia

Objectives, at the conclusion of this presentation, the attendee will be able to:

  1. Differentiate between football and lacrosse helmet designs and performances
  2. Develop preventive strategies for decreasing head impacts and risky behavior during lacrosse activity

8:30 am       “Advancements to Technology and Technique for Use of Large Osteochondral Allografts” Jimi Cook MD, University of Missouri

Objectives, upon completion of this presentation, the attendee will be able to:

  1.  Describe the advancements that have lead to improved outcomes for athletes treated with large osteochondral and meniscal allograft transplantations
  2.  Present 2-year outcomes for athletes and active patients treated with large osteochondral and meniscal allograft transplantations

9:00 am        “Assess, Don’t Guess: Customizing Injury Prevention Interventions Based on Individual Biomechanical Needs.” Gordon Williams AT, Assist Athletic Trainer, Cleveland Browns Football

Objectives, upon completion of this presentation, the attendee will be able to:

  1. Promote critical thinking in regards to developing customized plans to prevent injury and manage chronic orthopaedic issues, based on individual biomechanical assessments.
  2. Demonstrate implementation methods for custom plans based on the individual athlete for a large number of participants or an entire football team.
  3. Discuss multiple activation techniques and modalities that can be used to mobilize myofascial tissue to achieve optimal biomechanical goals

9:30 am      “Diagnostic Accuracy of Special Tests” Mike Diede PhD, Brigham Young University

Objectives, at the conclusion of this presentation, the attendees will be able to:

  1. Participants will identify the concepts used in assessing diagnostic accuracy including; comparison to gold standards, validity, reliability, sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratios.
  2. Participants will analyze the use of selective tissue tests for the upper and lower extremities given the data gathered on these tests.
  3. Discussion will focus on the use of special tests and modifications that could possibly improve accuracy.

10:00 am  “Simple Adolescent Nutrition” Kelly Fickes AT, Fairfax County Public Schools, Virginia

Objectives: At the completion of this presentation, the attendees will be able to:

  1. Describe using nutrition education as injury prevention strategy.
  2. Develop a simple nutrition recommendations for high school athletes.

10:15-11:00 am  “The Effects of Ski Width on Muscle and Knee Joint Stresses Alpine Skiing” John Seifert PhD, Montana State University

Objectives, At the completion of this presentation the attendees will be able to:

  1. Explain the movements of the knee when skiing skis of different ski widths.
  2. Describe the action of the major muscles that affect the hip and knee during a ski turn.
  3. Explain the association of ski width, knee extension/flexion, and the length tension relationship.